To the model errors of quantum mechanics,
To their correction,
By qualified engineer H.-J. Ackermann (chemistry)
Let's say it clearly. What a state had the chemistry in that time before
Mendelejew found the periodic system of the elements (PSE)?
Yes, it was alchemy, and it was a complete chaos of crazy ideas what ever was
possible using this kind of art!
Precisely just this state today cosmology, cosmogony and also particle physics
are reflecting. We really live in a "Pre-PSE-Time", projected at
our present time period - in the pre-world-formula-time. What is missing else?
You are missing that system! But what predicted Einstein to be that system? He
expected a unified theory, so to speak a formula about the world system. As long
as this "PSE" of universe is not given to the science, all the ideas
will be swirled mess filled of pure irrealism. And this although:
No single calculation and no single measurement of the present sciences are
Only the models and their connection models are not right. This is caused
by the solution of my theory which explains the particles in a completely
different way then it was done before. This means that the present interpretations
especially of the quantum mechanics and of the relativity theory are wrong. The
total system which makes close the world at its inside is made from a completely
Overview about some articles
The first mistake made by Victor de Broglie (1892-1987)
De Broglie predicted matter waves. They would be formed by a particle wave.
The mass of the particle plays the primary role:
nh = m' v w = pww
h = m' v Rw
h = h / 2
Rw =w / 2
Planck's constant h extended with integer numbers n is equal to the product
of the relativistic mass
m' = mo / (1-v²/c²), of the
velocity v and of the wave lengthw.
Relationship is completed by vacuum light velocity c. If the magnitudes are
shortened with 2 radially then we get the wave
amplitude Rw in that product. The momentum of the wave quantum is pw.
Mathematics of this solution is correct. The interpretation is wrong. Before
1924 de Broglie didn't have enough information about the general relativity
theory, GRT, of Einstein (1879-1955) which was published in 1915/16. Einstein
predicted there would be gravitation waves. They would arise with the movement
of masses. In his work he showed the parallel to electromagnetic waves which are
made by movement of electric charges.
So called matter waves really are nothing else than gravitomagnetic waves -
Here the equations for comparison:
h = m' v Rw
the gravitomagnetic momentum, the g.m. angular momentum, the g.m. effect
= e' v Rw |
the electromagnetic momentum, the e.m. angular momentum, the e.m. effect.
Here the e.m. momentum is made of the relativistically moved electric charge
e', until now only called as magnetic momentum
magnetic fields were unknown): ´ =
This analogy is extremely obvious. It means:
A rotating charge eo makes an electrically caused magnetic field
while its electric field is rotating. In the meaning of me derived by GRT, a
rotating mass mo creates a gravitationally caused magnetic field
while the gravitational field is rotating. We find here the start of the
electromagnetic wave and of the gravitomagnetic wave. Their wave quanta
are the photon and the fallon. Both are extending over and along the stationary
vacuum of the universe.
Present opinion is that the vacuum would be made by compensations of
Heisenberg's wave quanta. But these are compensations of waves. The
stationary vacuum does not consist of wave quanta. It is made by the two
stable subparticles of the stable elementary particles and of the two
elementary charges in complete rest. Along this stationary vacuum body,
Einstein conceived it with his solution of the equalizing of gravitation and
antigravitation in 1917, and then he rejected it to be a "stupid
thing", all the types of wave quanta are extending. The true stupidity
of Einstein was to reject this solution again. It was used by me to create
the background for the movement of the exchange quanta.
Additionally, de Broglie didn't know the macroscopic importance of the
gravitomagnetic waves ("of his matter waves"). A short time before
scientists noticed that also fullerons (carbon balls) have the qualities of g.m.
waves (of those "matter waves"). This means that each angular momentum
I of an arbitrary mass m is forming the sum of all the elementary angular
momenta at the same event:
I = n
h = m v r = (m1 + m2 + ...
mn) v r . |
The compact mass body also can create a magnet field like the compact charge
of an arbitrarily large electric current, but a gravitomagnetic field. That
magnetic field gravitationally caused is referred to the strength of the
attraction force of the electric charges and it may not be underestimated if big
masses are rotating. Well, this is not meant that compact mass, made from one
complete cluster, would be rotating around its gravity center but that many
singularities of masses are rotating on a ring. Therefore we expect the g.m.
field made by the differential rotation of masses.
Second mistake made by Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) and the following
Heisenberg established the mathematical relationship which is called
uncertainty relation since this time, resulting explanation problems
The product of momentum change p and of
"position" change X would be larger/equal
to Planck's constant
h/2. How did Heisenberg think of the
"position" X of the particle? Aren't there measured the changes of the
wave amplitudes Rw, like above
described, instead of the particle position so that 2
X = Rw:
Therefore Heisenberg, followed by Max Born (1882-1970), has made the
amplitude Rw or X equal to the position of the particle! Born told
that the amplitude square Rw² of the "particle wave" would
be a measurement for the "position probability of the particles". This
would be made clear at the extended function to square:
How could Heisenberg and Born do this, and what problems have they given to
At first the particle properties of electrons seemed to be indicated at low
intensity. At higher intensity the same indications were noticed like they are
well-known of e.m. waves. Because of the indications of the hits one thought
these hits all have to be the hits of the particles directly (dual-slit
Nobody thought that a particle as such a thing cannot be a hit itself
To an interaction we have to add the momentum exchange or the angular
momentum exchange! If work is made between quanta of two magnetic fields then
there is an interaction and also an area where the momenta are
reacting with the other momenta.
How did one think the mistake particles themselves would be indicated? At
lower intensity, indications seem to reflect the particles themselves. But this
assumption is also wrong. What does my theory tell us?
Stable particles like protons, electrons and definite neutrinos, have a rest
mass or a rest energy after the equation E = mo·c². Because the
energy E can be also calculated with Planck's condition E = h·f into
a frequency f, each stable particle should make a constant intrinsic oscillation
of its space in rest. The result means a spherical wave which is falling back
next to zero from the high point of its elongation - the amplitude Ro.
It looks like a pulsating heart.
Elongation in an arbitrary cosm (illustration 8.1;2 of my
This oscillation is given by Schwarzschild's solution of GRT. That solution I
have solved deeper. A term was resulting which gave the harmonic oscillation of
stable cosms. Here one can find the agreement between my oscillator-solution
(Arcus, 1986) and of Planck's theory. Each cosm is an oscillator. It represents
the program of each life. At the same time it makes a hierarchy of cosms up to
the oscillating universe. Under these circumstances waves cannot really be seen
as particles or signed as such things! On the one hand there are
- particles and their primary momentum exchange of their oscillation
functions; on the other hand there are
- the moved particles and the secondary momentum exchange of their wave
Primary wave quanta represent the same picture of oscillation into all
directions. Therefore they are felt as monopolar states (see illustration above:
pulsations of a sphere are spatially equal).
Because of the oscillations of the spheres of particles it is possible to
compensate particles with antiparticles in their contrary vibration. While a
proton is expanding an antiproton should be contracting. The stationary vacuum
remains. If a real particle is oscillating then it transmits the own picture of
its movement over the primary particles and antiparticles making vacuum.
Practically all over the space primary wave quanta are running from
particle to particle and vacuum quantum to vacuum quantum (short distance
effect). This kind of wave quanta is not identical with the well-known secondary
quanta of waves. Primary quanta transmit the effects of gravitation mo
mo as primary fallons and
the effects of the electric charges +eo and their anticharges -eo
as primary photons. Their frequencies correspond to the resting
frequencies of the particles themselves in relative rest.
Here an active exchange of primary effects is running into all
directions. Einstein set a limit to this event: if there will be enough mass,
but also enough momentum mass of secondary wave quanta, then the coordinate
system will be curved up to the end. The GRT is not in contradiction to my
opinion of the quanta and their interactions. The reason is that the exchange
forces are forcing every body into curved orbits. If there are centers of force
at all so all the orbits lay curved above them. Therefore it is wrong to
describe Einstein's GRT alone to be a geometric theory of gravitation.
Consequently, it is wrong to mark the GRT as pure space-curvature theory. It is
also wrong to assert that GRT would negate the exchange force of gravitation.
Till now, nobody still had solved the GRT completely so that its oscillator
solution would have been recognizable, before me.
Quantum mechanics was made by wrong interpretations. Heisenberg saw the
momentum exchange as an exchange of "virtual particles". The next
wrong conclusion was to see the vacuum being a space of "virtual
particles". But the stationary vacuum exists primary. Inside of it
elementary angular momenta of real particles are wandering to and from each
other. Therefore there is no vacuum of "virtual particles" which would
only live shortly and then die again after the uncertainty relation of
Heisenberg. This complete interpretation made for model is wrong. But
independent on this there is a stationary vacuum of primary particles.
As soon as a particle doesn't rest referred to its partner then the relative
velocity v appears. It leads to the phenomena of secondary wave quanta after de
Broglie and after the electrodynamics. This way secondary photons and secondary
fallons will be formed. They play an important role at higher velocities. Their
indication have confused Heisenberg, Born and present physics. They thought that
there would have been proved the immediate proximity of the particles. But there
the interactions of quanta were indicated, so the secondary angular momenta of
the moving particles. The particles themselves never have changed their
direction! Particles never have wave properties or qualities. But they are
receiver or transmitter of primary wave quanta because they are oscillators
themselves. In relative movement particles become causes of a second type of
wave quanta, of secondary wave quanta which are reflected by their
bipolar magnetic fields.
Really the particle was not indicated as such a one because its primary wave
quanta express only the properties of rest mass and of rest charge. But the
momentum of movement of that particle was indicated. Just like this the position
of the particle was not indicated but the wave amplitude Rw of the
particle which was in movement.
In the end everything is expressed by uncertainty relation, the primary wave
quanta and the secondary wave quanta, but in a completely new interpretation.
Rotation of a current of masses or charges and their
elongation (illustration 8.1;1 of the theory)
Here the field changes its polarizing or its field strength swells with small
The normal electrically caused magnetic field, which propagation is a change
of the transversal wave, really is the result of the twist of the primary field.
That primary field consists of a spherical longitudinal wave - of a spherical
Tesla wave. This way I think, that every transversal wave at each dipole antenna
must have a change of its primary longitudinal wave by which the secondary
longitudinal wave comes from. Both wave types are coupled then.
The cohesion between momentum and wave amplitude
Here the amplitude R can be substituted for the primary
amplitude Ro of cosm and for the secondary amplitude Rw of
wave quantum. The momentum stands firstly for the momentum of the cosm po =
mo·c for R = Ro and secondly for the momentum of the wave
quantum (of the magnetic field) pw = mw·c = m'·v for R =
Rw, where mw is the momentum mass and also for the
non-indicated wave quantum momentum pB = mB·v with R = rrot.
h is always constant. It
only can be extended by integer numbers of itself! You can see now why: This
area cannot be divided or enlarged. It is a unique and fundamental magnitude
given by God! But where does ½ h of Fermions come from?
This is a secondary effect caused by rotations of charges inside of the
particle on half the amplitude while its oscillation with an integer h.
It means: the area of an
electromagnetically fundamental constant
made from the product of the charge features e and their velocities is very
much smaller than h.
For primary oscillations and secondary waves the same law is valid. But the
things are not the same!
The relationship which is shown above doesn't construct any contradiction
between particles and waves. Heisenberg thought there would be a contradiction
and tried to overcome it with his variant of interpretation. Our interpretation
shows the unity of wave functions and oscillation functions better. Additionally
we see the angular momentum as the determining element of oscillating matter.
The same relation is valid for the so-called uncertainty of energy and time.
Primarily this is the oscillation energy of oscillators, secondarily it is the
wave energy of wave quanta. The time isn't a general time, but the period time
of oscillators (I called it oscillation time) or the period time of wave quanta.
The area h represents a thing like a constant programming of matter. If it would
not exist then the matter would be completely free, and it could decay
absolutely accidentally. Additionally in connection with the world formulae this
solution proves that the matter including particles and energy represents a
If the given context is not enough to explain why X equal to Rw
isn't the position of the particle, I give the following explanations.
Heisenberg wasn't master of the special relativity theory, SRT, at his time.
Otherwise he had exactly separated the observer relations. This mistake couldn't
be corrected by consideration of terms of SRT in quantum mechanics afterwards,
only used for indications. There the resting observer is at the place of the
indicator and at the place of the totally braked particle and its wave quanta.
The mass is relativistically stopped seen as m'. Then the momentum pw
also became relativistic. The more the mass m' increases with increasing
velocity v the smaller is the amplitude Rw.
My solution clearly explains the cohesion to the SRT. It is told the mass
will be increase relativistically along increasing velocity. To which observer
is this reflection valid? At the impact the indicating observer notices a
relativistically increased mass m'. Now the cause of it is the same as it
appears at secondary wave quantum exchange: the frequency of primary exchange
waves is shifted to the blue. Because after my theory the resting gravitational
particle has a definite frequency f which practically reflects the rest mass mo
of the particle, the frequency f ' is shifted to the blue over the exchange
momenta and then it represents the bigger mass m'. But the relationship behind
the escaping mass was not explained by generally formulated SRT of Einstein.
There the frequency is shifted to the red. The moving mass mB will be
lighter with SRT position:
mB = mo ·(1-v²/c²)
If now the moving mass mB isn't indicated, but it is rotating on
its orbit radius rrot then it doesn't reflect the equation (1,1) but
With increasing relativistic velocity the mass mo
is decreasing down to mB while the rotation radius rrot
may be arbitrary.
The particle is there where its rotation radius is! But the particle is not
there where its secondary wave quanta are landing at indication:
h = m' v Rw = mo v Rw
/ (1-v²/c²) |
h = mB v rrot = mo v
rrot ·(1-v²/c²) . |
It is expressed in differences of uncertainty relation:
Consequently, we cannot speak of the equality of the positions of the
electrons rrot and their wave amplitudes Rw. This will be
clearly seen with both following illustrations. The first illustration from my
theory marks the relativistic mass m' with mA. We see the cohesion
between the moving rest mass mB and the momentum mass mw.
Both masses don't lay in the same point. Therefore there is no "position
location" of particle. And, an elementary particle cannot be the same as
The indicated momentum p of a wave quantum which just had an interaction
is p = m' v = pw = mw c.
This relativistic retardation momentum is not equal to the wave
momentum pB = mB v while the unchanged and
non-indicated movement of the particle causing its own wave quantum!
The second part of the uncertainty relation is referred to time and energy:
One thought that an interaction would exist during a time uncertainty and
after this it would disappear again. This interpretation led to the mistake.
Really it has to be explained like following:
A real particle is oscillating spatially. It gets bigger up to its
amplitude R(X) in the time tx. During this process its energy Ew
corresponds to the oscillation energy which one can calculate into its
oscillation mass m called rest mass of that particle. Then the particle
radius decreases on a minimum again. For a short time the particle doesn't
exist any more. Then it will be reborn. A pulsation like a heart!
This event is not equal to vacuum. It describes the behavior of real
particles! Exactly for them is valid:
h = E · to = Ro · po
Relativistic masses referred to vacuum (illustration 8.2.5;1 of my theory)
b) particle orbit
Have attention, please: The
particle as such a one does not contact the indicator directly by interaction!
The center of a secondary wave amplitude has its interaction with the indicator!
That's the central dot of the orbit (always curved) if the rotation radius is
next to the wave amplitude at small velocities. But there are all the virtual
central dots of all the wave amplitudes of the main quanta and their sub-quanta!
These interaction indications have to be seen all around the particle coming
from it and going out into the space.
We observe an electrical circuit in the shape of a
single track conductor with the rotation radius rrot. The electrons
are rotating there where the vector of that rotation radius rrot
shows from the center (the middle dot) to the rotating electron. It draws the
circular movement. But where ist the amplitude Rw which is caused by
the rotating electron? If you orientate a magnet to the electrical circuit, so
it does not be attracted to the electrons on their orbit but into the center of
the electrical circuit. There the vector of the wave amplitude Rw
shows to! Consequently, both vectors of rrot and Rw are
contrary to each other as already proved above relativistically! There is no
equalitiy of the amplitude Rw and the places at rrot of
the particles, in such a way no equality of wave and elementary corpuscle, too!
The theory of the corpuscle-wave-dualism is an error!
The resting particle mass is indicated by its interaction center in Ro
as gravitation. Above the apparent point-like being of the particle doesn't lay
the "vacuum polarizing" of quantum mechanics but there are the
innumerable subparticles balanced charged up to the upper subparticles. The
upper subparticles are rotating on their radii Rrot. So the quantum
theory has measured a cloud of electrically positive and negative poles above
the electron-"point" those space has an extension of about 10-13
m. But this is not the true vacuum polarizing! Here is an interpretation mistake
of quantum mechanics again. This space above the point-like particle is filled
with the subparticles of electrons, with the subordinated particles which come
from the electron's protocosms. Protocosms are unstable particles which are
emitting radiation and stable particles in the end at their decay. All these
things remain locked under the horizon of the electron of 3.9·10-13
m calculated after my theory.
This means: physics has already recognized the structures of some particles
without knowing this, because de Broglie and Heisenberg have led the following
generation into the lunatic.
But there were more mistakes. Quarks are only interaction photons and
fallons, which give an information about a type of subparticles. But they don't
give information about the number of all the subparticles inside of the definite
particle! It's just like this with Z- and W-bosons.
The true and real vacuum polarizing is insignificantly extended in the space
that its measurement is relatively hard. At least the vacuum of masses and
charges is partially separated. It forms the stationary field of gravitation and
the electric field. As soon as the masses and the charges will be moved the
given field will be twisted. It will be converted to a rotation field which one
calls magnetic field. Now there are two types of it - the g.m. and the e.m.
When a front of magnetic field quanta with their angular momenta comes to one
single and relatively resting magnetic field, they are interacting with the
single field over a complete area, because the resting field can be extended
from minus to plus infinite state, cf. illustration 2.22,1 of my theory:
Explanation of German concepts here above: Kern = core or nucleus, Hülle =
That magnetic field non-relativistically has its largest interaction force H
in the distance of zero from the core or the nucleus. The more relativistic a
particle is rotating the more two peaks are shown besides the peak point of the
curve. While rotation of electrons these distances are very small. Therefore the
model of electron shell by Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) is mistaken. Following
Heisenberg's ideas he put the central interaction to the outside onto the
electron orbit in his opinion model explaining the right mathematical solutions.
So the reality was mirrored. This cannot remain so although the calculations
cause on the wave function. In principle it calculated the right wave amplitudes
but no rotation radii. My theory shows it simply: the electrons couple over the
elementary magnetic fields of their orbits making chemical compounds. The orbits
of electrons exist objectively in reality without that they would be measurable.
Interactions of orbit magnets of electrons are distributing themselves over a
theoretically infinitely large space - over an orbital of interactions.
Relatively reversed the event is working if a single magnet field quantum
collides with a multiple number of momenta on an indicator. That indicator
includes a multitude of interaction fields of the particles there which are
standing in relationship to the hitting angular momentum. The resulting effect
is relatively the same as the above called process. Just this drawing nobody has
Interactions between two electrons, abstracted of their orbit, are determined
by their charges, their masses (both are oscillation functions of both primary
fields of the world) and by their e.m. momentum and their g.m. momentum. Such
interactions are running when an electron pair has got a orbit.
2. Refutation of the present interpretation of the quantum mechanics
2.1. The meaning of Planck's constant
Planck's constant h is an effect, an action or just the elementary effect
quantum. Effects are working with each other. This process is called interaction.
Let us look at the meaning of the equations.
At first the equation (1) can be understood as if the wave lengthw would be a perimeter u
of a circle which is made of the amplitude being a radius
w = 2Rw = u .
Then the momentum pw could be understood as height of a cylinder
mantle. That cylinder mantle itself would be the symbol for one interaction h at
all multiplied with the level n. In its area there is the probability of the
interaction. But we don't find there any position probability of some particle.
Such an interpretation of positions was given by Max Born although it is
invisible from mathematics. The interaction had to be the same as the particle.
There where a particle position would be its interaction had also to be located.
Then Born would be right. But is this correct?
We square the equation (1) and get the following term:
n² 4 ²
h²= pw² 4p
Then we divide it by 2 and find the following
h² = pw² 2
Rw² = pw² Aw.
There we get the circle area Aw made of its amplitude and the
height of the cylinder made of the momentum square pw². Now this
product represents the volume of that cylinder. Inside of it the square
interaction is localized. Just in this function we do not find any direct note
of that particle. Instead of this we only find the interaction with Planck's
The more n we set in (up to infinity) the better we see that the interactions
are made in a successively extended area of the mantle or of the volume of the
2.2. Which effect has the stable particle itself?
I understand the effect of a particle like the electron to be a locked or
closed oscillation of its space during its time referred to one single
h = mo c o = po o
h = mo c Ro = po Ro . |
Then that quantum h reflects the resting mass mo of that particle.
The oscillation length o represents the
perimeter uo of the falling and elongating spherical space. That
elongation amounts Ro. The oscillation itself radiates the rest
momentum po of the primary exchange wave into all directions. This
momentum practically represents the signal for the dimension of rest mass mo
which is transferred to the other resting masses. The momentum exchange leads to
the effect of rest mass attraction, to the gravitation force in the end. In this
respect the quantum h is here the interaction of gravitation.
The hit of a particle which is moving with the velocity v and the mass mo
therefore cannot be the mass effect itself. The mass
effect has already been used! It is switched by the exchange of
primary rest momenta. Then the oscillation velocity c of elongation Ro
is valid. But if a particle is moved with the velocity v then it cannot be valid
the velocity c. Consequently at indication of particle-caused waves we never
observe the direct interaction of the particles. We never indicate their
locations or positions. Instead of the particle positions we notice the
interactions of the wave quanta made by particle velocity of v. These effects do
not lay a priori at the inside of the particles but each on the wave amplitude Rw.
A particle never is indicated itself but always its wave is indicated with its
relative velocity v referred to light velocity c!
This way the wave energy Ew which is able to be indicated
distinguishes of the (gravitational) rest energy Eo:
Ew = m' v c = pw c = mw c²
mw = m' v/c
Eo = mo c² .
There the momentum mass mw of the wave can be found which reflects
the really indicated effect h of an arbitrary wave.
2.3. Corrected statement after Max Born
The statement of Born had to be called like following:
The square of the wave amplitude Rw is a measurement for the
interaction probability of waves caused by those particles which cannot be
indicated directly at their position.
We find 6 types of interactions, 2 primary types connected with the light
velocity of the oscillation and 4 secondary interactions connected with the
primary spatial fallon
primary spatial photon
(no particle position; primary wave quanta, all over spatial because of
its spherical oscillation)
momentum mass, g.m. field, fallon;
momentum mass, e.m. field, photon.
moved gravitomagnetic field
rotating momentum mass, change field, fallon;
moved electromagnetic field
rotating momentum mass, photon.
If the problem isn't yet understood how indications of particles and their
wave quanta are different, this verbal summary follows:
Two types of momentum masses arise from movement (velocity v) of rest masses
or/and rest charges (velocity v=0). The first type is caused gravitationally
(fallons), the second type is caused by the electric charge (photons). Momentum
masses are the analoga to rest masses or rest charges.. But the first of them
are interacting in relative movements! Momentum masses never lay at the position
of the particle where the rest mass or/and the rest charge are working. If this
would be so, then the gravitation field or the electric field would be the same
as the field of the gravitation wave or of the magnetic field. But we know well
that the electric field and its magnetic field are not the same.
Notice: Today we speak of the electromagnetic wave as a phenomenon of the
electric and magnetic field. Our opinion is: When does an electric field swell
(made from oscillating charge-cosms as spherical waves of primary quanta)? Yes,
if charges are moved. But what does then follow if they are moved inevitably?
The resting polarization of the vacuum is twisted by a moving electric charge in
vacuum. From this, the magnetic field and its change is following. I don't see
any explanation contradiction to the present opinion after which the e.m. wave
would consist of electric and magnetic field components.
Primary quanta are consequently primary wave phenomena however being able to
be "shielded". This is the precondition for explanation of
Podletnikov's experiments and other effects caused by any features of
"shieldings". That "how?" I can best explain (see at the end
of exchange forces).